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Latest Operating Room Design Standards

One of the most critical stages in constructing an operating room is its design. Operating rooms are specialized structures that require strict and precise design standards. Let’s explore the latest operating room design standards with INTECH Group in the following article!

One-Way Flow Design Standards for Operating Rooms

The operational flow in the operating room must ensure one-way, separate cleanliness requirements, distinguishing between clean and dirty traffic streams, doctors and patients, entrances and exits to ensure absolute sterility of the operating room and avoid external influences.

Operating rooms should be designed in square or rectangular shapes for easy layout of functional chains and interior equipment.

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Standards for Location, Area, and Height of Operating Rooms

Operating rooms should be located in the central area of the hospital, where there are the best environmental conditions and technical infrastructure, near intensive care units, conveniently connected to outpatient treatment areas and diagnostic imaging areas. Operating rooms are often placed at the end of corridors for easy control of access, with no traffic passing through, and convenient for installing and operating equipment, close to the supply of sterile devices, supplies, and technical systems; electricity, water, air conditioning, medical gas.

In Vietnam, according to the design standards TCXDVN 365.2007, the minimum area of an operating room is 36m², with a minimum height of 3.1m. However, it is currently recommended that operating rooms be designed with an area of ​​55.7m² to accommodate modern equipment. Operating rooms for special surgeries with high technical requirements should have an area of ​​74.3m².

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Standards for Temperature and Humidity in Operating Rooms

According to Circular 34/2005/QD-BYT, the ideal temperature in the operating room is 21-26°C and humidity is 60% – 70%. Air exchange rate: 15-20 times/hour.

Cleanliness Standards and Medical Gas System in Operating Rooms

Cleanliness Standards in Operating Rooms

In Vietnam, the cleanliness level of hospital operating rooms is level 7, equivalent to class 10000. Minor surgery rooms and clean corridors will have a cleanliness level equivalent to class 100000.

Medical Gas System Standards in Operating Rooms

For ordinary operating rooms, a medical gas system is required, including oxygen, compressed air, vacuum. However, for operating rooms with special requirements, nitrogen or anesthesia gas suction heads can be added. Endoscopic surgery rooms also require a CO2 gas supply.

Medical gas outlets in the operating room are usually distributed on the wall or on ceiling-mounted systems (Pendant, Ceiling hose). The advantage of this system is space-saving, avoiding surgeons getting entangled in gas lines from the wall to the patient. Typically, both positions are designed and always have a backup cluster (oxygen, suction, compressed air).

Operating rooms must always be provided with a sufficient amount of sterile clean gas through a gas filtration system to minimize contamination during and after surgery.

Positive-pressure clean gas is usually used for regular operating rooms. Negative-pressure clean gas is commonly used for isolated and infectious operating rooms.

Electrical System Standards in Operating Rooms

When designing the electrical system for operating rooms, it is important to separate the lighting electrical system from the power system used for machinery and equipment. The electrical system requires continuous 24/7 supply, so backup power sources such as generators are needed to continuously supply power to medical devices such as surgical clocks, automatic door buttons, various types of X-ray film readers, X-ray machines,..

Operating rooms also need to be equipped with 3-phase power supplies in the clean area to use special equipment.

The wiring system and control equipment must ensure safety and compliance with technical specifications (power, quality…).

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Lighting System Standards in Operating Rooms

The Surgery Department must ensure lighting conditions according to specific requirements for each area:

Aseptic area: artificial lighting.

Clean area: a combination of artificial lighting solutions with natural light.

When designing operating rooms, lighting fixtures should be divided into 2 types, including general lighting systems and localized lighting.

General lighting system: light from overhead lighting systems or corner lights.

A good sealing system ensures tightness, usually supplemented with interlocking systems (for operating rooms with more than 1 door) to ensure cleanliness for the room.

Localized lighting system: light taken from surgical light systems arranged appropriately for easy adjustment of distance and brightness.

The illumination level of lights in operating rooms should reach 300 – 700 lux. The minimum illumination is the minimum light intensity per unit area (calculated for horizontal planes, height above 0.8m from the floor).

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Interior Design Standards for Operating Rooms

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Flooring

The floor of the operating room needs to be flat, smooth, load-bearing, non-slip, chemical-resistant, waterproof, and easy to clean. The intersection of the floor with the wall must be easy to clean, water-resistant, and dust-free.

Antibacterial, antistatic vinyl flooring is commonly used in operating rooms with the ability to eliminate static electricity and low emissions. In addition to its antistatic properties, the floor also has chemical resistance, antibacterial properties, dirt resistance,… suitable for many spaces with special, stringent requirements for air quality, dust concentration like operating rooms.

Walls, Partitions

Operating room walls should use high-quality finishing materials to ensure a flat, smooth, waterproof, corrosion-resistant surface that is easy to clean from floor to ceiling. The intersection of the floor with the smooth curved walls prevents dust buildup.

Operating room partition walls require criteria: fire resistance, anti-bacterial, chemical resistance, resistance to high-intensity scrubbing and washing,

Ceiling

Ceilings inside operating rooms and corridors need to be painted white, have a flat, smooth surface (dust-free), waterproof, antibacterial, good insulation, and soundproofing.

Operating room ceiling panels are usually made of galvanized steel, coated with electrostatic paint, antibacterial, dust-repellent, scratch-resistant, fire-resistant, ensuring tightness.

Operating Room Doors

In the design of modern operating room interiors, automatic or semi-automatic door systems are often prioritized.

Operating room doors need to have a good sealing system to ensure tightness. Additionally, they are usually designed with an interlocking system (for rooms with more than one door) to maintain cleanliness. The mechanical system is designed for easy operation, convenient for pushing patient beds and facilitating the movement of operating room staff.

Common materials for operating room doors include stainless steel or high-grade aluminum, along with suitable materials for observation windows.

Common opening types include sliding or swing doors. The doors are typically wide open to facilitate the transportation of patients and medical equipment. Door control devices usually include non-contact switches, push-button switches, foot pedals, or weight sensor switches to increase sterility for surgeons and operating room staff.

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Operating Room Handwashing Sink

Although not directly used for surgeries, handwashing sinks play a crucial role. They provide water meeting standard requirements for doctors and nurses to clean their hands before and after surgery. Therefore, the requirements for this equipment include:

Quick and uninterrupted warming; the water temperature needs to be stable to avoid affecting the sterilization process of the medical staff’s hands.

Equipped with a UV sterilization system. UV lamps need to be placed in stainless steel tubes to limit ultraviolet rays from affecting the health of people in the operating room.

The water filtration system needs to meet the requirements for filtering dust particles sized at 5µm to ensure purified water. After filtration and sterilization, the water should eliminate 99.99% of bacteria: E.Coli, 100% of P. Aeruginosa, and 98.8% of B. Subtilis.

The above article provides a comprehensive overview of the latest operating room design standards. To achieve these stringent standards, choosing a reputable design firm is crucial. INTECH GROUP is confident in providing consulting, design, and construction services for clean rooms and hospital operating rooms with the best service quality, offering rational operating room construction solutions and cost savings for hospitals and healthcare facilities.

Contact INTECH GROUP now to receive the earliest support from our experienced experts!

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